Recent Changes

Sunday, September 22

  1. page Global governance - failure and reforms of international and regional organizations edited ... Global governance affecting nation-level Governments Helen Clarke, the current head of UNDP, …
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    Global governance affecting nation-level Governments
    Helen Clarke, the current head of UNDP, illustrates how democratic initiatives around the Millennium Development Goals, even if conducted from the highest and in some ways weakest level of governance, have given some instruments to hold Governments accountable in front of the requests of their people.
    {un security council reform.pdf}
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    6:42 pm
  2. page Global governance - failure and reforms of international and regional organizations edited ... Global governance affecting nation-level Governments Helen Clarke, the current head of UNDP, …
    ...
    Global governance affecting nation-level Governments
    Helen Clarke, the current head of UNDP, illustrates how democratic initiatives around the Millennium Development Goals, even if conducted from the highest and in some ways weakest level of governance, have given some instruments to hold Governments accountable in front of the requests of their people.
    {un security council reform.pdf}
    (view changes)
    6:41 pm

Saturday, August 31

  1. page Security and development - the challenge of peace-building and human security edited ... This reading of facts, even though embedded in an extremely peculiar and almost unique context…
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    This reading of facts, even though embedded in an extremely peculiar and almost unique context, shows the bright link between security, peace and institutions.
    Over time the exacerbation of wars, famines, inaction of the international community, and therefore the total absence of any real power on ground or sea has led to the ocean off the Horn of Africa becoming no man's land, justifying robin-hoodesque interpretations of what actually is one of the biggest waves of organised crime in scale, geographical extent and violence.The number of piracy episodes with hijacks off the Somali coast peaked between 2005 and 2011, where attacks reached a high of 243, meaning 96% of the world's total number of hijacking episodes.The consequences have been felt globally, affecting trade flows (re-routing, insurance mark-ups, private security on board costs) , tourism and the fishery sector.
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    piracy as it'sits only way
    However, all these measures risk being costly and ineffective if political debate with the long-ignored and self-structured population throughout the whole process does not take place: through participatory involvement and discussion those conditions that have allowed piracy to thrive and secure stakeholders support, could be re-addressed in favour of a wider, more democratic development and state-building effort.
    Sources: IMB 2012; UNODC–WB 2012.
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    6:26 am
  2. page Main country position edited ... This approach is voluntaristic, it is based on self-regulation of the market and on a system o…
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    This approach is voluntaristic, it is based on self-regulation of the market and on a system of incentives for the voluntary initiative of the actors.
    Until those rules have been successfully exported, the U.S. had no reason to disagree with the common international policies. When EU began to promote and to call for a regulatory approach instead of a voluntaristic one, the U.S. withdrew from the international agreement defining them harmful for American interests.
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    the Obama AdministrationAdministration, the topic
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    measures to strenghthenstrengthen energy efficiency
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    change has occuredoccurred in their
    BRICS countries
    BRICS, an acronym referring to Brazil, Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa, is used to refer to those emerging countries that are different from developed and developing countries. Nowadays they have an enormous economic weight in economic world growth.
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    6:22 am
  3. page Main country position edited ... Monitor environmental health controlling pollutants (noise, swimming water, rare species, etc.…
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    Monitor environmental health controlling pollutants (noise, swimming water, rare species, etc.).
    Support sustainable development stressing on the importance of education, research, sustainable production and eco-friendly products.
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    priorities are puttedput in action
    EU is a driving force in international cooperation trying to achieve the Millenium Development Goal 7 (Ensure Environmental Sustainability).
    Legal bases of EU environmental policies: the treaty of European Community
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    6:19 am

Tuesday, August 20

  1. page Security and development - the challenge of peace-building and human security edited ... Security and development: the challenge of peace-building and human security {nuclear terrori…
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    Security and development: the challenge of peace-building and human security
    {nuclear terrorism.pdf}
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    does Peacebuilding mean?mean ?
    Peacebuilding (literally “consolidation of the peace”) is a term used by the International Community to describe activities involved in the resolutions of armed conflicts in order to establish a sustainable peace.
    Peacebuilding includes:
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    Empirical studies have specifically demonstrated that various dimension of “good governance” are prerequisite for sustainable economic development. Good governance including the rule of law, has been found to be a critical success factor for sustainable development. Economic performance instigates governments to improve their institutions through generous funding. On the other hand, many studies suggest the absence of “virtuous circles” in which higher incomes due to an economic boost and massive development aid lead to further improvements in governance. Experiences in South America and eastern Europe in particular show that higher levels of affluence do not necessary translate into better governance. In period of prosperity, established interest groups unduly influencing state policies may grow even more powerful. Higher income levels may therefore increase rather that decrease Mafia interest in business state. In the same way, economic prosperity based on exploitation of natural resources such as oil or diamonds acts form many developing countries as an economic “curse disguise”. In many cases, resource dependency provokes the capture of the state by corrupt and criminal groups. The revenues from these economic activities are more likely to generate rampant corruption and subsequent weakened institutions and diminished economic growth. Examples: Angola, Nigeria, Zambia, Gabon and Venezuela. Anyway, the economic growth plays a fundamental role in development, but it must be controlled by a good governance. All countries would succeed in building up justice and security sectors, but they have to be controlled and monitored in all phases of this process, in which the most important thing to do is to bring under control corruption and crime.
    Immigration in a globalized eraThe immigration field takes particular importance in a globalized scenario, such as the one we are living today in our countries, expecially in States that present relevant labour or capital resources. Immigrationhas produced important social, political, economic and also cultural consequences expecially in large urban centre, that represents the “pull factor” of immigration. In particular circumstances, countries have refused to became “country of immigration”; in other cases, countries accepted the multiculturalism migration produces. When involved in immigration flows, host countries have to manage with the presence of immigrants and the best practice to be realized by the host countries themselves is promoting integration. Although it could be a good point to start, integration is very often discouraged or simply made up by a temporary term. This way, immigrants are attended to come back their own country rather than to be integrated in their new society. But how can be (im)migration related to globalization? It coul be possible to distinguish several factors. The most important one involves immigration and labour: in industrialized countries and centrers, labour is an attractive "pull factor" able to push people from poorest countries to most advanced and industrialized ones. Immigrant labour is seemed to be a necessary force which is able to help both the host and the home economies to be richer in the future. Immigrants are used to maintain strong family, bussiness and cultural connection with the home country. Very often, immigration is able to create concrete transnational communities: this is possible also thanks to globalization – that produces more efficient links among the whole international community. In this sense, does integration play a strategic role in the immigration field? Host countries can promote social integration of immigrants, getting in touch with the common frameworks the new society presents, such as the national law or the language. Integration very often produces difficulties: both native people and immigrants might be radicalized at their own culture, common values or traditions; this is due to the great diversity that can intercur by home countries and host one. In this terms, social integration produces hostility and fractures rather than cohesion. In a globalized era, the increase of migration flows is seemed to be a natural outcome of the globalization itself. Nowadays, societies have to deal with the importance of multiculturalism and the population of countries of immigration has to face the presence of new members in "their own society". So immigration can be conceived as an important resource for the future: immigrants can play an active role in host society, by enjoyng the equal sense of appartenence of citizens, by promoting a positive diversity. At the same time, it's important to point out that immigrant have to satisfy certain criterias to be fully integreted in the host society, such as the respect of the national law and socio-political pillars. Integration can lead to social cohesion, even if social cohesion is not a direct result produced by immigration. Immigrants can be fully integrated in the host society – that has becoming also “their” society – without apport any contribution to social cohesion. In this sense, integration can be helped by the globalization itself, that can be considered at the same time the push of immigration, as mentioned above.
    For further analysis of current developments on the topic, in addition to brief history and related documents see http://www.oecd.org/dac/incaf/sps.htm
    UNGA Resolution n.302 ch.7, 18 December 1949
    UNRWA - Consolidate Eligibility and Registration Instruction (CERI) ch.3A; 1 January 2009
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    2:20 am
  2. page Security and development - the challenge of peace-building and human security edited ... • promote the resolutions of conflicts; • improve human rights. In 2010, in light of the Ac…
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    • promote the resolutions of conflicts;
    • improve human rights.
    In 2010, in light of the Accra Agenda for Action, after the endorsement of the Principles for Good International Engagement in Fragile States and Situations, following the committment to the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and fostering the work of the g7+ group of fragile states, the Dili Declaration was set for a new vision of peacebuilding and statebuilding
    HUMANITARIAN LAW
    International Humanitarian Law (IHL) comprises the established laws for the protection of individuals in armed conflicts: the laws applicable to the conduct of hostilities, once a state has resorted to the use of force, which form the so-called ius in bello. In fact the IHL reaffirms and develops the traditional international laws of war (ius in bello) which are considered as customary laws. These laws are codified in several conventions: among the earlier agreements on this issue there are the Hague Conventions of 1907 (largely recognized as customary law) but now the most relevant legal instruments are the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the two Additional Protocols of 1977 which are the base of IHL. Also more specific conventions and treaties – like those banning specific weapons – are part of the IHL. Humanitarian law is not concerned with the legality of a state recourse to force which concerns the ius ad bellum.The scope of IHL is to protect individuals rather than states, in particular «IHL comprises all those rules of international law which are designed to regulate the treatment of individuals – civilian or military, wounded or active – in international armed conflict [the Additional Protocol II addresses also internal conflict]». So humanitarian law sets certain bounds to the use of force against an adversary: it determines both the relationship of the parties to a conflict with the other parties and with neutral states – in particular the way in which a state treats the nationals of its adversary. It is also applied to the governing methods of occupied territory. Certain provisions are also applicable in the relationship between the state and its own citizens but this is not its main function. IHL sets these limits to the way in which force may be used by prohibiting certain weapons (such as poison gas), certain methods of warfare (such as indiscriminate attacks – attacks must be directed only against military objectives) and regulating the treatment of non-combatants, prisoners of war, wounded, sick, shipwrecked and of the civilian population.In the past humanitarian law was applicable only in case of war. Now, it is applicable in any international armed conflict: it is not necessary that the parties have declared war and that they recognize that they are in a formal state of war. The rules of IHL apply with equal force to both sides in the conflict, irrespective of who is the aggressor, and the fact that one side in a conflict violates humanitarian law does not justify its adversary in disregarding that laws.
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    2:12 am

Monday, August 19

  1. page Green economy edited ... http://www.oecd.org/greengrowth/ Towards Green Growth (2011), http://www.oecd.org/greengrowth…
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    http://www.oecd.org/greengrowth/
    Towards Green Growth (2011), http://www.oecd.org/greengrowth/towardsgreengrowth.htm
    From Green to Blue: Circular Economy
    Critics of the mainstream green economy model claim how the high level of costs bared in order to foster this kind of system are symptoms of its wrongfulness. These critics have brought to the formulation of a detailed economic model regarding systems designed to be environmentally restorative. In the logics of "cradle to cradle", every waste can be seen as resource for other processes. Learning from nature, industrial processes can be sustainable, efficient and productive.
    It's principles are:
    non-linear systems thinking
    waste is food
    energy must come from renewable sources
    diversity is strength
    In December 2012, in the follow-up of the Rio+20 Summit, the European Union published a memo titling "Manifesto for a resource-efficient Europe" where it ackowledges the necessity of adopting a circular industrial and economic system model where resources can be recovered.
    The label of circular economy can be used for different schools of thought, including those who see the necessity of a paradigm shift in energy use (from fossil to renewables), those believing biodiversity can be productive inspiration for industrial systems, and those contributing to the wider debate on the role of finance.
    The Blue Economy is both an open-source movement and a business model that further develops Green economy into solutions that - mimicking nature - use resources in cascading systems allowing industrial systems to be productive and sustainable.
    It originated from Gunter Pauli's initiative at the United Nations University in Tokyo, the Zero Emission Research and Initiatives foundation. Working in UNEP's "Nature's 100 best" project, aimed at finding the 100 best sustainable solutions for economy and society inspired by natures principles, Blue Economy found it's principles being based on scientifical observations on nature for a more easily sutainable and more bio-logical development.

    http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/39na3.pdf
    http://www.unep.ch/etb/publications/Agriculture/flyer%20UNEP%20FOAM.pdf
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    http://ec.europa.eu/environment/enveco/eco_industry/pdf/ecoindustry2006.pdf
    http://www.unep.org/labour_environment/pdfs/green-jobs-background-paper-18-01-08.pdf//
    http://www.blueeconomy.eu/page/dieprinzipien
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    6:30 am

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